Civil War Scrapbook
Scope and Contents
- 1861 -- 1915
- Majority of material found within 1861 - 1865
Conditions Governing Use
0.25 Linear Feet (1 box)
Language of Materials
Biographical / Historical
For decades, there had been a dramatic difference between the economies of the North and the South. While northern states had established manufacturing and industry, the southern states’ economy was agriculturally based, relying on the labor of enslaved Africans. As abolitionist sentiment grew in the North, motivated by both moral and free labor reasons, the South felt that their economy and way of life was being threatened. These states also clashed when it came to new states being added in the West: pro and anti-slavery groups clashed in whether slavery should be allowed in these new territories. When Lincoln took office in March of 1861, Confederate rebels threatened Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina, ultimately firing the first shots of the Civil War.
The war was initially thought of as a conflict that would be put to an end quickly, with the Union’s advantages in population and manufacturing; however, the strength of the Confederate forces were displayed in the Battle of Bull Run in July 1861, showing that the war would likely extend far beyond original estimates. Confederate General Robert E. Lee led the Confederate army in several victories over mismanaged Union Troops, and invaded Maryland in September 1862. After tremendous losses in the Battle of Antietam, Lee invaded Pennsylvania, but the Battle of Gettysburg forced him to retreat to Virginia, after which he never again invaded the North.
After the Battle of Antietam, Lincoln felt that the Union forces were strong enough for him to issue the Emancipation Proclamation, which he signed on January 1st, 1863, ending slavery in all Confederate states. This had the effect of shifting the public opinion of the war in favor of the union, as it redefined the focus of the war to the moral outrage against slavery. In 1864, Union General Ulysses S. Grant started the Overland Campaign, in which he tried to destroy Lee’s army with a strategy of attrition. When this failed, Union General William Tecumseh Sherman led his famous “March to the Sea” in which he marched from Atlanta to Savannah, burning and ravaging the Georgia countryside along the way, and exhausting the South.
The war is thought to have ended on April 9th, 1865, when Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. This was followed by the surrender of several Confederate generals throughout the South. This resulted in four million enslaved people being freed, and the collapse of the Confederacy, which faced economic and psychological devastation from the war. The Reconstruction Era followed the war, in which the United States attempted to establish national unity again, and civil and political rights were guaranteed to formerly enslaved persons via three new constitutional amendments.
This booklet found in the Ryder Collection of Confederate Archives in 2011; the Ryder collection was cataloged as part of the WPA in 1939/1940 but in later decades the catalog ( A Calendar of the Ryder Collection of the Confederate Archives at Tufts College 1940) was forgotten and library staff added other materials to the Ryder collection, usually items from the South, from the 18th and 19th century and around the time of the Civil War.
The first page of booklet is a letter addressed to Professor H. W. Bumpus, April 9th 1915, in which an anonymous alumnus donates the booklet to Tufts. Clearly of different provenance the booklet was removed from Ryder collection and MS 179 was created. Susanne Belovari, Archivist for Reference and Collections, November 2011.
In April 2021 this finding aid was reviewed for offensive description by Collections Management Archivist Adrienne Pruitt. Terms pertaining to slavery were updated according to P. Gabrielle Foreman, et al. “Writing about Slavery/Teaching About Slavery: This Might Help” community-sourced document, accessed December 15, 2020, https://docs.google.com/document/d/1A4TEdDgYslX-hlKezLodMIM71My3KTN0zxRv0IQTOQs/mobilebasic.
- Civil War Subject Source: Local sources
- United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865 Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings
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